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Kalantiyaw, Ang Panlilinlang (mtsnet)

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Kalantiaw code elementary school...

This is a drawing of kalantiaw code elementary school a supposedly ancient filipino calendar which was "discovered" with other documents by jose e. Marco and was acquired by huwad lyrics by crazy as pinoy na pangarap meaning kahulugan gagong rapper the philippine library and museum in 1914. It was included in a parchment manuscript dated 1572 and bearing the title la isla de negros y las costumbres de los visayos y negritos  or "the island of negros and the customs of the visayans and negritos" hindi online songs movie movies translation 2010 to english by diego lope povedano.   it was destroyed hindilinks4u kites tere bin laden housefull aisha khatta meetha milenge krishna peepli live in the second world war but a complete photographic copy survives in the robertson collection in the manuscript department of the william r. Perkins library at duke university, durham, hindiii neb sequence compatible ends buffer restriction promega digestion invitrogen star activity n. C totoo tv tagalog ba yan ang kulam. , u tattoos for girls designs men with meaning ideas guys on feet couples. S tootoo. Com scam review. A tattoodle google facebook skins wallpapers toolbar removal download. Tortuga bay rum cake inn punta cana trading island twins recipe. Even though povedano wrote that he had copied kodigo 36 norte ni hammurabi ng maguindanao maragtas kalantiaw sibil pilipinas the calendar “with great exactness and it is thus", the script here is difficult to read because the characters are poorly drawn, crowded together and oddly abbreviated. Notice that there are no kudlíts, the code geass of federal regulations pink lyoko small diacritical marks that should appear above or below the baybayin letters. No nga character can be seen either codec pack for windows movie maker download media player 7 central mac. They are missing because the words have been spelled alphabetically codeine syrup side effects velvet club allergy sulfate 3 phosphate high not syllabically. That is to codejunkies us pokemon diamond heart gold pearl ds downloads soul silver psp platinum say, the writing is a letter for letter transcription of words spelled using spanish conventions. This reveals the author's complete ignorance of the very basics of filipino writing in the 1500's codependency quiz symptoms definition recovery treatment no more test books quotes. Also, the povedano documents are the only ones of the codeigniter redirect session tutorial database cms 2. 0 model ajax email spanish period that were were written on leather parchment. Paper was the medium of codecanyon warez hotfile rapidshare login thumbsup download twitter scripts torrent choice by that time. The calendar shows a twelve month year in the wheel and seven day week above it. This is highly unlikely. Early spanish accounts say that ancient filipinos had completely different ways for marking the passage of time. Povedano also listed the names of the months in his manuscript but in two cases these names don’t match what is written on the calendar in baybayin script. Yet, all the names on this calendar are listed correctly  266 years later in fr. Pavón’s leyendas of 1838-39. Furthermore, when pavón described this calendar he happened to write this about the month of november:. When the philippine library & museum acquired the manuscript containing this calendar from marco in 1914, he said that it had the same provenance as povedano’s 1572 map of negros (which was also a fake). That map was said to have been discovered in a lead box when the walls of the prison in himamaylan, negros were torn down in 1833. However, an inventory of the contents of that box, written at that time, did not mention this calendar nor the manuscript which contained it. Nor was it explained where the map had been between 1572 and whenever it was placed in the prison wall. The inventory of 1833 stated that, “all items were left with don m. V. Morquecho" and it was indeed signed by manuel valdivieso y morquecho and two witnesses. However, according to the archives in madrid and seville, don m. V. Morquecho was still in cadiz, spain as late as 1847 petitioning queen isabella ii. He was asking her not to send him to the philippines at all. He did become governor of negros but not until 1849. Through a series of thefts the map, and presumably this calendar, ended up in 1898 in the hands of a former servant of governor valdivieso who supposedly sold it to josé e. Marco in late 1913. Later in life, marco had a completely different story for the origin of this povedano manuscript. In 1954 he said that he had got it from the same old cook (see "kalantiaw the hoax") who had stolen the books of father pavón  from the convent of himamaylan, negros in 1899. The old cook was supposedly given the manuscript by the family of father ramón andrés who was given the manuscript by povedano himself. Throughout his life josé marco tried to explain the source of his many "discoveries" with several conflicting variations of this same story.  . Aano kayâ nálaman ng mga mánanalaysáy ang mga pangyayaring naganáp sa filipinas noóng panahón bago dumatíng ang mga kastilŕ? Paano kayâ nilá nalaman ang mga pangalan ng mga tao noón at kung anú-anó ang ginawâ nilá kung halos walâ namáng totoóng kasulatan na naitalâ mulâ sa naturang panahón? Marami sa ating nálalaman tungkól sa unang panahón ay nakaratíng sa atin sa pamamagitan ng mga alamát. Itó ang mga kuwentong hindî isinusulat kundî isinásalaysáy  lamang ng bawat salinlahě sa sumúsunód na salinlahě. Kadalasan, ang mga alamát ay mga kuwentu-kuwento lamang tungkól sa paglikhâ ng daigdíg, káuná-unahang babae at lalaki at ibá pa na madalíng makitang hindî dapat ituring na totoó. May iláng alamát na marahil ay nakabatay sa mga totoóng pangyayari noóng unang panahón ngunit hindî maáasahan ang mga itó bilang mga tunay na talaan ng kasaysayan dahil nababago ang mga alamát sa bawat pagsásalaysáy. Máaaring mahinŕ o malî ang alaala ng taong nagkuwento o dî kayá’y pinalabukan niyá ang kuwento upang pagandahín itó. Ang lathalaíng itó ay tungkól sa isáng alamát na tinatawag na maragtás ngunit hindî yaóng maragtás na dati’y itinuturň sa mga batang mag-aarál sa filipinas. Ang sanaysáy na itó ay tungkól sa isáng makabagong alamát na nakapaligid sa isáng aklát na ang pamagát ay maragtás. At tulad ng mga lumang alamát, “pinalabukan” din itóng bagong alamát. Ang pagkakáibá ng kasong itó ay nagkahalu-halň ang mga alamát at ang kasaysayan. Makikita natin dito na kapág inihahalň ang mga alamát sa kasaysayan, kadalasa’y gumagandá ang mga kuwento ngunit ang katotohanan ay laging napapahamak. . Ang mga kuwentong nakilala sa pangalang maragtás ay mga alamát na máaaring nakabatay sa mga totoóng pangyayari noóng unang panahón. Ikinuwento rito ang sampúng datu na lumayas sa kalupitán ni datu makatunaw ng borneo at dumayo sa panáy. Binilí nilá ang kapatagan ng pulô kay marikudo, ang pinunň ng mga ayta roón. Ayon sa alamát, ang sampúng datu at kaniláng mga kamag-anak ang siyáng nagíng mga ninunň ng buóng lahing bisayŕ. Itó ang alamát na ipinagdiriwang taún-taón sa pistang ati-atihan sa kalibo, aklan mulâ noóng itó ay ginawáng bahagi ng táunang kapistahan ng santo nińo sa dekadang 1950. . Bagamá’t matagál nang alám ng mga tagá-panáy ang mga alamát na itó, ang salitáng maragtás ay hindî náriníg bago itó ginamit sa pamagát ng isáng aklát ni pedro alcantara monteclaro sa taóng 1907. . Isinulat niyá ang maragtás sa mga wikang hiligaynon at kinaray-á ng panáy. Ang kahulugáng ibinigáy ni monteclaro sa salitáng maragtás ay "kasaysayan"; subalit hanggáng ngayón, itó ay nakikilala lamang bilang pamagát ng kaniyáng aklát. Sa tingín ni monteclaro, mahalagá ang mga alamát sa pamanang bisayŕ kayâ, tinipon niyá ang ibá’t ibáng mga kuwento ng mga matandâ sa panáy at ipinalathalŕ niyá ang mga itó sa kaniyáng maragtás. Mayroóng mga taong nagpahayag na ang maragtás ay isinalin lamang ni monteclaro mulâ sa mga kasulatang isinulat noóng unang panahón bago dumatíng ang mga kastilŕ (prehispanic). Ngunit malinaw niyáng sinabi sa kaniyáng paunang salitâ ng aklát na siyá mismo ang may-akdâ nitó. At kahit mayroón siyáng nábanggít na dalawáng lumang kasulatan, sinabi niyáng hindî na niyá isinama ang mga itó dahil sa kaniláng hindî maayos na kalagayan. Hindî rin niyá ipinahiwatig na isinalin niyá ang mga naturang kasulatan sa kaniyáng aklát. Basahin ang buóng paunang salitâ ng maragtás ni monteclaro sa foreword to the readers hindî binigyán ni monteclaro ng anumáng petsa ang di-umanó’y mga napakalumang kasulatang kaniyáng nábanggít. Ang isá raw aniyá ay galing sa kaniyáng lolo. Ang isá namán ay galing daw sa lolo ng isáng 82 taóng gulang na lalaki na nákilala niyá sa bayan ng miag-ao. Sinabi ni monteclaro na kinopya niyá ang mga kasulatang itó noóng 1901 bagamá’t halos hindî na niyá mabasa ang mga itó. Tiyák na ang mga kasulatang itó ay nagmulâ lamang sa panahón ng mga kastilŕ dahil nakasulat na ang mga itó sa papél at ang nasabing pinagmulán ay máaaring dalawáng salinlahě lamang bago ng taóng 1901. (ayon kay monteclaro ang isá ay may limáng salinlahě na noón. ) isinaád pa ni monteclaro sa pangwakás ng maragtás na kinailangan niyáng sumangguně sa lahát ng matatandâ sa bawat bayan dahil, ayon sa kaniyá,. Malamáng na ibinatay ang malakíng bahagi ng maragtás sa isáng akdáng isinulat noóng 1858 ni fr. Tomás santarén, na inilathalŕ sa taóng 1902 sa ilalim ng pamagát na historia de los primeros datos. . Itó ang pagsasalin ni santarén ng dalawáng kasulatan. Ang una ay mulâ sa bandáng gitnâ ng siglo 1800 at ang ikalawá, ayon sa kaniyá, ay lumŕ ngunit hindî antigo. Hindî sinabi ni santarén kung anó ang wikang pinagmulán ng mga kasulatang itó. Makikita sa isá pang puná ng tagapaglathalŕ ng maragtás ang kaugnayan nitó sa historia ni santarén patí ang pinanggalingan ng kaalamán ni santarén:. Sa kabilâ ng ganitóng malinaw na paliwanag, itinuring pa rin ng mga sumunód na mánanalaysáy na parang tunay na lumang kasulatan ang aklát ni monteclaro. Malamáng na ang sanhî nitó ay ang maraming kasunód na pagsasalin ng maragtás na sadyáng nakakálinláng. . Bukód dito, hindî binigyáng-pansín ng mga mánanalaysáy ang modernong istilo ng pagkákasulat ng maragtás. Ang mga kabanatŕ tungkól sa mga bagay-bagay at kaugalian ng sinaunang panahón ay isinulat sa estilong ginagamit na ng mga modernong mánanalaysáy at hindî istilo ng pagkakásalaysay ng isáng taong nabuhay noóng unang panahón. Halimbawŕ, náritó ang ginawáng paglálarawan sa kasalanang katamarán na ang parusa ay gawíng alipin ang nagkasalang batugan:. Hindî kapaní-paniwalang ganitó itinalâ ang mga batás noón. Malî rin ang pangungusap na itó dahil may mga binanggít sa maragtás na ibá pang mga kasalanang ang parusa ay kamatayan. Sa kabilâ nitó, may ibáng mga mánunulát na tila winaláng bahalŕ ang kahiná-hinalang paglálarawan. Sa halíp ay tinipon nilá ang mga itó, tinawag na “code of maragtas” at saká ipinahayag na itóng “code” ay umiral noóng taóng 1212! Lalong napagtibay ang mga malíng akalŕ tungkól sa maragtás nang sabihin ng batikáng mánanalaysáy na si dr. Henry otley beyer na itó ay isáng kasulatang prehispanic. Sa philippine saga na isinulat nilá ni jaime c. De veyra noóng 1947, binanggít niyá isáng kasulatan galing sa panay na tinatawag na maragtás “at ang antigong pagkákasulat ng orihinál nitó”. . Tinanggáp tulóy ng ibá pang mga mánanalaysáy itóng mga malíng akalŕ nang waláng katanúng-tanóng at inuulit pa rin ang mga itó ng maraming gurň nang waláng álinlangan hanggáng ngayón. Noóng 1957, isinulat ng anthropologist na si tom harrison ang paunang salitâ sa isá pang salin ng maragtás na ginawâ ni manuel l. Carreon. Doón ay hindî niyá tinawag na may-akdâ ng maragtás si monteclaro kundî isáng tagasalin lamang ng isáng lumang alamát ng filipinas. . Isinalaysáy rin ni monteclaro sa maragtás ang pagbuô ng confederation of madya-as sa panáy sa ilalim ni datu sumakwel at ang mga detalye ng saligáng-batás nitó. Bagamá’t ma-detalye ang ginawáng paglálarawan ni monteclaro sa lumang saligáng-batás, at sa kabilâ ng kahalagahan nitó sa kasaysayan, mapupunáng ni walâ siyáng binanggít na pinagmulán ng kuwentong itó. Ang confederation of madya-as ay sa aklát ni monteclaro lamang matatagpuán. Hindî itó naitalâ sa ibáng kasulatan at hindî rin itó kasama sa mga alamát ng mga tribo sa panáy na hindî nasakop ng mga kastilŕ. . Bagamá’t inilarawan ni monteclaro ang mga ugalě at mga pátakarán ng pámayanán nina sumakwel, walâ siyáng tinukoy na code of sumakwel o code of maragtás. Sa totoó lang, ang maragtás ay pamagát lamang ng kaniyáng aklát at ang ibig sabihin nitó ay “kasaysayan”. Samakatuwíd, sadyáng kahiná-hinalŕ ang anumáng kuwento tungkól sa isáng code of maragtás na di-umanó’y umiral noóng unang panahón bago isinulat ni monteclaro ang kaniyáng aklát. Kung susuriin ang nakaraán, ang code of maragtas ay unang lumitáw sa isáng lathalaín ni guillermo santiago-cuino noóng 1938 na el código de maragtas. . Sinabi niyáng ang mga batás na itó ay pinairal sa taóng 1212 at di-umanó’y isinalin niyá itó mulâ sa “antigong sulat ng filipinas”. Nátuklasán daw niyá itóng mga lumang kasulatan sa mga bundók sa madya-as at noón ay kasama raw niyá ang isáng obispo na si gabriel reyes. Subalit nang si reyes ay tanungín tungkól dito ng kaniyáng kamag-anak na si jaime de veyra ng national language institute, sinabi ni reyes na hindî niyá kilala si santiago-cuino at hindî siyá kailanmán nagpuntá sa bundók madya-as. Kaugnáy pa rin nitó, hindî ipinakita ni santiago-cuino kaninuman ang orihinál ng mga lumang kasulatan at walâ rin siyáng naipakitang kapaní-paniwalang katibayan para sa kaniyáng sanaysáy. Malamáng na ang pinagkunan ni cuino ng petsa para sa code of maragtás ay isáng gawâ ni josué soncuya, ang historia prehispana de filipinas (1917). . Taóng 1212 ang petsang ibinigáy ni soncuya para sa pagdayo ng sampúng datu. Ibinatay niyá itó sa hindî nailathalang dalawáng kasulatan mulâ sa mambusao, capiz at bugasong, antique na hindî kinikilalang prehispanic ng sinumáng mánanalaysáy. Sa katotohanan, ang dalawáng kasulatang itó ay waláng tagláy na petsa ngunit kinailangang lagyán ng petsa ng mga gurong pampáaralán na sumulat ng mga kasaysayan ng kaní-kaniláng bayan para sa national library noóng 1911. Bukód dito, hindî maáasahan ang pagkakalkulá ni soncuya. Halimbawŕ, sa kaniyáng tantiyá, ang taóng 1212 ay 16 na salinlahě mulâ sa taóng 1160. Madalíng makitang hindî máaaring magíng ganoón karami ang salinlahě ng tao sa loób ng 52 taón lamang. . Itinuwíd ni william henry scott ang pagkilala sa maragtás bilang isáng aklát ng mga alamát at hindî katotohanan noóng 1968. Sa kaniyáng doctoral dissertation sa university of santo tomás, nagsagawâ si scott ng isáng nápakaingat at masusing pagsisiyasat sa lahát ng pinanggalingan ng mga kaalamán tungkól sa filipinas noóng panahón bago dumatíng ang mga kastilŕ. Hindî kinopya ni scott ang gawâ ng ibáng mga mánanalaysáy. Sa halíp ay sinurě niyá ang mga orihinál na kasulatan at hinanap niyá sa maraming aklatan at museo sa buóng daigdíg ang mga bagay-bagay at kasulatang máaaring makapagpatibay sa mga itó. Tinanóng niyá ang mga batikáng mánanalaysáy tungkól sa pinagkunan ng kaniláng kaalamán. Sumangguně siyá sa maraming dalubhasŕ sa ibá’t ibáng larangan tulad ng wikŕ, geology, archaeology, at anthropology. Sinaliksík niyá ang malawak na koleksiyón ng mga bagay-bagay at kasulatang kaugnáy ng panahóng prehispanic na tinipon ng kaniyáng kaibigang si dr. H. Otley beyer. Kinapanayám niyá ang mga kaibigan, kakilala at kamag-anak ng mga taong tulad nina pedro monteclaro at jose e. Marco na unang “nagbunyág” ng mga lumang kasaysayan at sinurě rin niyá ang kaniláng mga liham. Napatunayan sa dissertation ni william henry scott na ang maragtás at ang confederation of mady-as ay hindî mga tunay na lumang kasulatan mulâ sa unang panahón kundî mga alamát lamang na tinipon, at sa iláng kaso ay máaaring gawá-gawâ lamang, ni pedro monteclaro na inilathalŕ noóng 1907 sa kaniyáng aklát na ang pamagát ay maragtás. Samantala, ang maragtás code namán ay isáng katháng isip lamang ni guillermo cuino na isinulat niyá noóng taóng 1938. Malamáng na ibinatay niyá itó sa aklát ni monteclaro. Matagumpáy ang pagtatangól ni scott sa kaniyáng dissertation sa haráp ng isáng lupon ng mga batikáng filipinong mánanalaysáy na dati’y sumang-ayon sa mga dî totoóng bahagi ng kasaysayan ng filipinas.   ang lupong tagahatol ay binuô nina teodoro agoncilllo, horacio de la costa, marcelino forondo, mercedes grau santamaria, nicholas zafra at gregorio zaide. Inilathalŕ ang kinálabasán ng masusing pagsisiyasat ni scott sa kaniyáng prehispanic source materials for the study of philippine history noóng 1968 at magpahanggáng ngayón hindî itó pinabulaanan ng sinumáng mánanalaysáy. . Sa pagpasok ng dekadang 1960, pinag-álinlanganan na ng mga pangunahing dalubhasŕ ang maragtás kayâ hindî na nilá binanggít ang naturang aklát sa kaniláng mga akdâ. Pinatunayan ng sanaysáy ni scott na may katotohanan ang kaniláng mga hinalŕ. Subalit maraming taón pa ang lumipas bago nápansín ng mga mánunulát ng mga aklát pampáaralán ang mga ibinunyág ni scott. Karamihan sa kanilá ay ipinagpatuloy ang paglilimbág ng dati niláng mga aklát. May ibá namáng sumulat ng mga bagong aklát na tagláy pa rin ang mga kamálian. Náritó ang isáng halimbawŕ mulâ sa ang pagsulong ng payamanan (1981):. Bukód sa kamálian ng pahayag na itó, tila inakalŕ pa ng mga may-akdâ na ang maragtás ay isáng tao at hindî isáng aklát. Ginamit ni jose villa panganiban ang maragtas upang tuntunín ang pinagmulán ng wikang tagalog sa paunang salitâ ng napakapopulár na english-tagalog dictionary ni fr. Leo james english noóng 1965. . Magpahanggáng ngayón ay hindî pa itó iniwawastô sa kabilâ ng maraming panibagong limbág. May isáng kasapě sa lupong tagahatol sa dissertation ni scott na tila hindî nagmadalíng ituwíd ang mga kamáliang nasa talaan ng kasaysayan. Ginamit pa rin ni gregorio zaide ang mga dating kaalamán galing sa maragtás sa mga akdâ, tulad ng pageant of philippine history noóng 1979, history of the republic of the philippines sa taóng 1983 at philippine history sa 1984 na isinulat nilá ni sonia zaide, ang kaniyáng anák. . Nagsikap ang iláng mánanalaysáy upang iwastô ang mga kamalián ng nakaraán ngunit masasabing nagkámalî rin silá nang sabihin niláng ang maragtás ay isá sa mga panlilinláng sa kasaysayan ng filipinas at hindî isáng alamát lamang. Noóng ginawa ni sonia zaide ang panibagong labás ng history of the republic of the philippines sa taóng 1987, inilarawan niyáng malî ang maragtás dahil itó aniyá ay isáng huwád na kasulatan:. Bagama’t dati nang tinatanggap ng ilang mananalaysay, kabilang ang mga kasalukuyang awtor, naging maliwanag na ang maragtas ay likhang-isip lamang ni pedro a. Monteclaro, isang bisayang pinunong bayan at makata, sa iloilo noóng 1907. Ibinatay niya ito sa mga katutubong kaugalian at mga alamat, na isinalin sa mga sumusunod na salinlahi nang pasalita. . Hindî makatarungang hatulan si pedro monteclaro bilang isáng manlilinláng o na sabihing huwád ang kaniyáng aklát dahil malinaw ang kaniyáng pahayag na ang maragtás ay waláng ibá kundî isáng aklát ng mga alamát. Kung may panlilinláng kaugnay sa aklát na itó, itó ay ginawa ng ibáng mga manunulat na nagpahayag na itó ay isáng tunay na kasulatan mulâ sa unang panahón. . Looking back; important dates in philippines history. Education news. Vol. 7, no. 4. April 2001. Author not identified. . Antique provincial profile, league of provinces of the philippines. . Save madya-as, save panay. Author not identified. Ang pangunahing pinagkunan ng kaalamán sa lathalaíng itó, patí ng ilán sa mga sinipě mulâ sa ibá pang akdâ, ay prehispanic source materials for the study of philippine history (revised edition, 1984) ni w. H. Scott. Makikita ang pinagkunan ng bawat sipě kung iki-klik ang mga m# link. . Ang larawan sa itaás ng sanaysay na itó ay galing sa ang pagsulong ng pamayanan (unang labas, 1981, p. 174) nina f. T. Leogardo, r. R. De leon & p. Jacob. Hindî binanggít doón ang pangalan ng gumuhit ng larawan. . Alip, eufronio m. Political and cultural history of the philippines, revised edition, 1954. . English, leo james. English-tagalog dictionary, 1965. . Leogardo, felicitas t. , rosalina r. De leon & purification jacob. Ang pagsulong ng pamayanan, first edition, 1981. . Scott, william henry. Looking for the prehispanic filipino, 1992. . Zaide, gregorio f. The pageant of philippine history vol. 1, 1979. . Zaide, gregorio f. & sonia m. Zaide. Philippine history, corrected edition, 1987. . Zaide, gregorio f. & sonia m. Zaide. History of the republic of the philippines, revised edition, 1987. . Zaide, gregorio f. & sonia m. Zaide. Kasaysayan ng republika ng pilipinas, 1989. . This is the fraudulent code of kalantiaw which first appeared in ancient legends of the island of negros (volume 1, chapter 9), a book ascribed to a ficticious friar named josé maría pavon but was actually a forgery by josé e. Marco (1877? -1963) who claimed to have discovered it in 1913. Almost nobody questioned the authenticity of the code for over 50 years until historian william henry scott exposed it and many other historical frauds in 1968. Unfortunately, it is still thought to be true in many circles today. . Later writers added the words "aklan, panay" to the title but it was supposedly written for the island of negros. . Ye shall not kill, neither shall ye steal nor shall ye hurt the aged, lest ye incur the danger of death. All those who this order shall infringe shall be tied to a stone and drowned in a river or in boiling water. . Actually 3 laws - for killing, stealing & elder abuse. Beware. If you break this law you may "incur the danger of death" before you are actually killed. . Ye shall punctually meet your debt with your headman. He who fulfils not, for the first time shall be lashed a hundred fold, and if the obligation is great, his hand shall be dipped threefold in boiling water. On conviction, he shall be flogged to death. . If you're not convicted of defaulting on a debt you get a lashing or a scalding. "on conviction" you die. - neither a borrower nor a lender be, i guess. . Obey ye: no one shall have wives that are too young, nor shall they be more than what he can take care of, nor spend much luxury. He who fulfils not, obeys not, shall be condemned to swim three hours, and, for the second time, he shall be scourged with spines to death. . Actually 3 laws - for statutory rape, extreme polygamy & extravagance (or possibly lust, depending on the translation). "swim for 3 hours". Ancient filipinos did not divide the day into 24 "hours" and they had no clocks. . Actually 2 laws - for disturbing graves & disrespecting graves. "observe and obey" - what's the difference? Also, if you break this law you die but if you break similar laws, #6 & #9, you pay a fine or become a slave. . Obey ye: exchange in food must be carried out faithfully. He who complies not shall be lashed for an hour. He who repeats the act shall, for a day be exposed to the ants. . The western measurement of time, the hour, is mentioned again here. Also, "obey ye" (but don't "observe ye"? ). Why the faux mediaeval english? It's silly. Did the author of this "translation" think it made the work more believable?. Ye shall revere respectable places, trees of known value, and other sites. He shall pay a month's work, in gold or money, whoever fails to do this; and if twice committed, he shall be declared a slave. . Many people say that kalantiaw was a muslim but here he demands that his subjects must "revere" trees and other sites like animists do. Also, don't confuse this with law #4. You might get the surprise of your life - your death!  . Actually 4 laws - for tree killing, assault with a deadly weapon, trespassing & poaching. More animisim from the supposedly muslim datu. Is it permissible to shoot the elderly during the day or to shoot them with something other than arrows at night? The penalty for trespassing here is death. But don't worry, take a look at law #8. . Actually 3 laws - for adultery, assault with a vicious animal & vandalism. The penalty for trespassing on a headman's property is death (see: law #7) however you may fool around with his wives and sic fido on him and still just get away with a stint of slavery. . Actually 5 laws - for night singing, bird killing, document tearing, being a politician and necrophilia. Did the ancient filipinos have paper documents? Isn't this what tearing implies? If you kill a manaul bird you risk slavery but if it's a young bird you will be scourged. See: law #15. More "muslim" animism? And if you enjoy necrophilia you are only risking temporary servitude but if you disturb the peace of a grave while doing so you will be killed. See: law #4. It shall be the obligation of every mother to show her daughter secretly the things that are lascivious, and prepare them for womanhood; men shall not be cruel to their wives, nor should they punish them when they catch them in the act of adultery. He who disobeys this shall be torn to pieces and thrown to the caymans. . Actually 2˝ laws - for sexual ignorance, spousal abuse & spousal abuse with jealousy. "torn to pieces and thrown to the caymans" - wow! There's an incentive for sex ed. Dad should be understanding if there's another man in the house; he's probably just helping mum with an educational demonstration. . Actually 3 laws - for thumbing your nose at the law, double child homicide & adultery. I guess killing young girls or a single boy was o. K. In kalantiaw's kingdom. Here's a tip: don't try to steal the old men's women; just do it! Or just go for the headmen's women instead and you won't get burned. See: law #8. . Actually 3 laws - for assault, taking a superior for granted  & vandalism. The penalty for breaking this law is death by drowning. If you want to fight authority just get your dog to attack a headman. The penalty is less severe. See: law #8 again. Anitos? Kalantiaw is supposed to be a muslim, not an animist. . They shall be killed, who profane places where sacred objects of their diwatas or headmen are buried. He who gives way to the, call of nature at such places shall he burned. . Source of this version of the code of kalantiaw: political and cultural history of the philippines, volume 1 published as fact by eufronio m. Alip, 1954  . This is the text of presidential decree no. 105 issued by ferdinand marcos on january 24, 1973. It declares that all national shrines are to be considered sacred places. Among the shrines specifically mentioned is the kalantiaw shrine in batan, aklan. (emphasis added by present the author. ) marcos issued this decree five years after william henry scott proved irrefutably that the entire kalantiaw legend was a hoax. MalacaŃang manila presidential decree no. 105 january 24, 1973 declaring national shrines as sacred (hallowed) places and prohibiting desecration thereof whereas, the government of the republic of the philippines has declared certain places in the country as national shrines because they were the sites of the birth, exile, imprisonment, detention or death of great and eminent leaders of the nation. Whereas, among these national shrines are the birthplace of dr. Jose rizal in calamba, laguna, talisay, dapitan city, where the hero was exiled for four years, fort santiago, manila, where he was imprisoned in 1896 prior to his execution; talaga, tanauan, batangas where apolinario mabini was born, pandacan, manila, where mabini's house in which he died, is located, and aguinaldo mansion in kawit, cavite, where general emilio aguinaldo, first president of the philippines, was born, and where philippine independence was solemnly proclaimed on june 12, 1898,. Whereas, it is the policy of the government to hold and keep said national shrines as sacred and hallowed place. Now, therefore, i, ferdinand e. Marcos, president of the philippines, by virtue of the powers vested in me by the constitution as commander-in-chief of all the armed forces of the philippines, and pursuant to proclamation no. 1081 dated september 21, 1972, and general order no. 1 dated september 22, 1972, do hereby declare said national shrines and others which may be proclaimed in the future as national shrines to be hallowed places and the desecration of the same in the form of disturbing their peace and serenity by digging, excavating, defacing, causing unnecessary noise and committing unbecoming acts within the premises of said national shrines, is hereby strictly prohibited. This decree is hereby made part of the law of the land and shall take effect immediately. Done in the city of manila, this 24th day of january, in the year of our lord, nineteen hundred and seventy-three. Source:. Aano kayâ nálaman ng mga mánanalaysáy ang mga pangyayaring naganáp sa filipinas noóng panahón bago dumatíng ang mga kastilŕ? Paano kayâ nilá nalaman ang mga pangalan ng mga tao noón at kung anú-anó ang ginawâ nilá kung halos walâ namáng totoóng kasulatan na naitalâ mulâ sa naturang panahón? Marami sa ating nálalaman tungkól sa unang panahón ay nakaratíng sa atin sa pamamagitan ng mga alamát. Itó ang mga kuwentong hindî isinusulat kundî isinásalaysáy  lamang ng bawat salinlahě sa sumúsunód na salinlahě. Kadalasan, ang mga alamát ay mga kuwentu-kuwento lamang tungkól sa paglikhâ ng daigdíg, káuná-unahang babae at lalaki at ibá pa na madalíng makitang hindî dapat ituring na totoó. May iláng alamát na marahil ay nakabatay sa mga totoóng pangyayari noóng unang panahón ngunit hindî maáasahan ang mga itó bilang mga tunay na talaan ng kasaysayan dahil nababago ang mga alamát sa bawat pagsásalaysáy. Máaaring mahinŕ o malî ang alaala ng taong nagkuwento o dî kayá’y pinalabukan niyá ang kuwento upang pagandahín itó. Ang lathalaíng itó ay tungkól sa isáng alamát na tinatawag na maragtás ngunit hindî yaóng maragtás na dati’y itinuturň sa mga batang mag-aarál sa filipinas. Ang sanaysáy na itó ay tungkól sa isáng makabagong alamát na nakapaligid sa isáng aklát na ang pamagát ay maragtás. At tulad ng mga lumang alamát, “pinalabukan” din itóng bagong alamát. Ang pagkakáibá ng kasong itó ay nagkahalu-halň ang mga alamát at ang kasaysayan. Makikita natin dito na kapág inihahalň ang mga alamát sa kasaysayan, kadalasa’y gumagandá ang mga kuwento ngunit ang katotohanan ay laging napapahamak. . Ang mga kuwentong nakilala sa pangalang maragtás ay mga alamát na máaaring nakabatay sa mga totoóng pangyayari noóng unang panahón. Ikinuwento rito ang sampúng datu na lumayas sa kalupitán ni datu makatunaw ng borneo at dumayo sa panáy. Binilí nilá ang kapatagan ng pulô kay marikudo, ang pinunň ng mga ayta roón. Ayon sa alamát, ang sampúng datu at kaniláng mga kamag-anak ang siyáng nagíng mga ninunň ng buóng lahing bisayŕ. Itó ang alamát na ipinagdiriwang taún-taón sa pistang ati-atihan sa kalibo, aklan mulâ noóng itó ay ginawáng bahagi ng táunang kapistahan ng santo nińo sa dekadang 1950. . Bagamá’t matagál nang alám ng mga tagá-panáy ang mga alamát na itó, ang salitáng maragtás ay hindî náriníg bago itó ginamit sa pamagát ng isáng aklát ni pedro alcantara monteclaro sa taóng 1907. . Isinulat niyá ang maragtás sa mga wikang hiligaynon at kinaray-á ng panáy. Ang kahulugáng ibinigáy ni monteclaro sa salitáng maragtás ay "kasaysayan"; subalit hanggáng ngayón, itó ay nakikilala lamang bilang pamagát ng kaniyáng aklát. Sa tingín ni monteclaro, mahalagá ang mga alamát sa pamanang bisayŕ kayâ, tinipon niyá ang ibá’t ibáng mga kuwento ng mga matandâ sa panáy at ipinalathalŕ niyá ang mga itó sa kaniyáng maragtás. Mayroóng mga taong nagpahayag na ang maragtás ay isinalin lamang ni monteclaro mulâ sa mga kasulatang isinulat noóng unang panahón bago dumatíng ang mga kastilŕ (prehispanic). Ngunit malinaw niyáng sinabi sa kaniyáng paunang salitâ ng aklát na siyá mismo ang may-akdâ nitó. At kahit mayroón siyáng nábanggít na dalawáng lumang kasulatan, sinabi niyáng hindî na niyá isinama ang mga itó dahil sa kaniláng hindî maayos na kalagayan. Hindî rin niyá ipinahiwatig na isinalin niyá ang mga naturang kasulatan sa kaniyáng aklát. Basahin ang buóng paunang salitâ ng maragtás ni monteclaro sa foreword to the readers hindî binigyán ni monteclaro ng anumáng petsa ang di-umanó’y mga napakalumang kasulatang kaniyáng nábanggít. Ang isá raw aniyá ay galing sa kaniyáng lolo. Ang isá namán ay galing daw sa lolo ng isáng 82 taóng gulang na lalaki na nákilala niyá sa bayan ng miag-ao. Sinabi ni monteclaro na kinopya niyá ang mga kasulatang itó noóng 1901 bagamá’t halos hindî na niyá mabasa ang mga itó. Tiyák na ang mga kasulatang itó ay nagmulâ lamang sa panahón ng mga kastilŕ dahil nakasulat na ang mga itó sa papél at ang nasabing pinagmulán ay máaaring dalawáng salinlahě lamang bago ng taóng 1901. (ayon kay monteclaro ang isá ay may limáng salinlahě na noón. ) isinaád pa ni monteclaro sa pangwakás ng maragtás na kinailangan niyáng sumangguně sa lahát ng matatandâ sa bawat bayan dahil, ayon sa kaniyá,. Malamáng na ibinatay ang malakíng bahagi ng maragtás sa isáng akdáng isinulat noóng 1858 ni fr. Tomás santarén, na inilathalŕ sa taóng 1902 sa ilalim ng pamagát na historia de los primeros datos. . Itó ang pagsasalin ni santarén ng dalawáng kasulatan. Ang una ay mulâ sa bandáng gitnâ ng siglo 1800 at ang ikalawá, ayon sa kaniyá, ay lumŕ ngunit hindî antigo. Hindî sinabi ni santarén kung anó ang wikang pinagmulán ng mga kasulatang itó. Makikita sa isá pang puná ng tagapaglathalŕ ng maragtás ang kaugnayan nitó sa historia ni santarén patí ang pinanggalingan ng kaalamán ni santarén:. Sa kabilâ ng ganitóng malinaw na paliwanag, itinuring pa rin ng mga sumunód na mánanalaysáy na parang tunay na lumang kasulatan ang aklát ni monteclaro. Malamáng na ang sanhî nitó ay ang maraming kasunód na pagsasalin ng maragtás na sadyáng nakakálinláng. . Bukód dito, hindî binigyáng-pansín ng mga mánanalaysáy ang modernong istilo ng pagkákasulat ng maragtás. Ang mga kabanatŕ tungkól sa mga bagay-bagay at kaugalian ng sinaunang panahón ay isinulat sa estilong ginagamit na ng mga modernong mánanalaysáy at hindî istilo ng pagkakásalaysay ng isáng taong nabuhay noóng unang panahón. Halimbawŕ, náritó ang ginawáng paglálarawan sa kasalanang katamarán na ang parusa ay gawíng alipin ang nagkasalang batugan:. Hindî kapaní-paniwalang ganitó itinalâ ang mga batás noón. Malî rin ang pangungusap na itó dahil may mga binanggít sa maragtás na ibá pang mga kasalanang ang parusa ay kamatayan. Sa kabilâ nitó, may ibáng mga mánunulát na tila winaláng bahalŕ ang kahiná-hinalang paglálarawan. Sa halíp ay tinipon nilá ang mga itó, tinawag na “code of maragtas” at saká ipinahayag na itóng “code” ay umiral noóng taóng 1212! Lalong napagtibay ang mga malíng akalŕ tungkól sa maragtás nang sabihin ng batikáng mánanalaysáy na si dr. Henry otley beyer na itó ay isáng kasulatang prehispanic. Sa philippine saga na isinulat nilá ni jaime c. De veyra noóng 1947, binanggít niyá isáng kasulatan galing sa panay na tinatawag na maragtás “at ang antigong pagkákasulat ng orihinál nitó”. . Tinanggáp tulóy ng ibá pang mga mánanalaysáy itóng mga malíng akalŕ nang waláng katanúng-tanóng at inuulit pa rin ang mga itó ng maraming gurň nang waláng álinlangan hanggáng ngayón. Noóng 1957, isinulat ng anthropologist na si tom harrison ang paunang salitâ sa isá pang salin ng maragtás na ginawâ ni manuel l. Carreon. Doón ay hindî niyá tinawag na may-akdâ ng maragtás si monteclaro kundî isáng tagasalin lamang ng isáng lumang alamát ng filipinas. . Isinalaysáy rin ni monteclaro sa maragtás ang pagbuô ng confederation of madya-as sa panáy sa ilalim ni datu sumakwel at ang mga detalye ng saligáng-batás nitó. Bagamá’t ma-detalye ang ginawáng paglálarawan ni monteclaro sa lumang saligáng-batás, at sa kabilâ ng kahalagahan nitó sa kasaysayan, mapupunáng ni walâ siyáng binanggít na pinagmulán ng kuwentong itó. Ang confederation of madya-as ay sa aklát ni monteclaro lamang matatagpuán. Hindî itó naitalâ sa ibáng kasulatan at hindî rin itó kasama sa mga alamát ng mga tribo sa panáy na hindî nasakop ng mga kastilŕ. . Bagamá’t inilarawan ni monteclaro ang mga ugalě at mga pátakarán ng pámayanán nina sumakwel, walâ siyáng tinukoy na code of sumakwel o code of maragtás. Sa totoó lang, ang maragtás ay pamagát lamang ng kaniyáng aklát at ang ibig sabihin nitó ay “kasaysayan”. Samakatuwíd, sadyáng kahiná-hinalŕ ang anumáng kuwento tungkól sa isáng code of maragtás na di-umanó’y umiral noóng unang panahón bago isinulat ni monteclaro ang kaniyáng aklát. Kung susuriin ang nakaraán, ang code of maragtas ay unang lumitáw sa isáng lathalaín ni guillermo santiago-cuino noóng 1938 na el código de maragtas. . Sinabi niyáng ang mga batás na itó ay pinairal sa taóng 1212 at di-umanó’y isinalin niyá itó mulâ sa “antigong sulat ng filipinas”. Nátuklasán daw niyá itóng mga lumang kasulatan sa mga bundók sa madya-as at noón ay kasama raw niyá ang isáng obispo na si gabriel reyes. Subalit nang si reyes ay tanungín tungkól dito ng kaniyáng kamag-anak na si jaime de veyra ng national language institute, sinabi ni reyes na hindî niyá kilala si santiago-cuino at hindî siyá kailanmán nagpuntá sa bundók madya-as. Kaugnáy pa rin nitó, hindî ipinakita ni santiago-cuino kaninuman ang orihinál ng mga lumang kasulatan at walâ rin siyáng naipakitang kapaní-paniwalang katibayan para sa kaniyáng sanaysáy. Malamáng na ang pinagkunan ni cuino ng petsa para sa code of maragtás ay isáng gawâ ni josué soncuya, ang historia prehispana de filipinas (1917). . Taóng 1212 ang petsang ibinigáy ni soncuya para sa pagdayo ng sampúng datu. Ibinatay niyá itó sa hindî nailathalang dalawáng kasulatan mulâ sa mambusao, capiz at bugasong, antique na hindî kinikilalang prehispanic ng sinumáng mánanalaysáy. Sa katotohanan, ang dalawáng kasulatang itó ay waláng tagláy na petsa ngunit kinailangang lagyán ng petsa ng mga gurong pampáaralán na sumulat ng mga kasaysayan ng kaní-kaniláng bayan para sa national library noóng 1911. Bukód dito, hindî maáasahan ang pagkakalkulá ni soncuya. Halimbawŕ, sa kaniyáng tantiyá, ang taóng 1212 ay 16 na salinlahě mulâ sa taóng 1160. Madalíng makitang hindî máaaring magíng ganoón karami ang salinlahě ng tao sa loób ng 52 taón lamang. . Itinuwíd ni william henry scott ang pagkilala sa maragtás bilang isáng aklát ng mga alamát at hindî katotohanan noóng 1968. Sa kaniyáng doctoral dissertation sa university of santo tomás, nagsagawâ si scott ng isáng nápakaingat at masusing pagsisiyasat sa lahát ng pinanggalingan ng mga kaalamán tungkól sa filipinas noóng panahón bago dumatíng ang mga kastilŕ. Hindî kinopya ni scott ang gawâ ng ibáng mga mánanalaysáy. Sa halíp ay sinurě niyá ang mga orihinál na kasulatan at hinanap niyá sa maraming aklatan at museo sa buóng daigdíg ang mga bagay-bagay at kasulatang máaaring makapagpatibay sa mga itó. Tinanóng niyá ang mga batikáng mánanalaysáy tungkól sa pinagkunan ng kaniláng kaalamán. Sumangguně siyá sa maraming dalubhasŕ sa ibá’t ibáng larangan tulad ng wikŕ, geology, archaeology, at anthropology. Sinaliksík niyá ang malawak na koleksiyón ng mga bagay-bagay at kasulatang kaugnáy ng panahóng prehispanic na tinipon ng kaniyáng kaibigang si dr. H. Otley beyer. Kinapanayám niyá ang mga kaibigan, kakilala at kamag-anak ng mga taong tulad nina pedro monteclaro at jose e. Marco na unang “nagbunyág” ng mga lumang kasaysayan at sinurě rin niyá ang kaniláng mga liham. Napatunayan sa dissertation ni william henry scott na ang maragtás at ang confederation of mady-as ay hindî mga tunay na lumang kasulatan mulâ sa unang panahón kundî mga alamát lamang na tinipon, at sa iláng kaso ay máaaring gawá-gawâ lamang, ni pedro monteclaro na inilathalŕ noóng 1907 sa kaniyáng aklát na ang pamagát ay maragtás. Samantala, ang maragtás code namán ay isáng katháng isip lamang ni guillermo cuino na isinulat niyá noóng taóng 1938. Malamáng na ibinatay niyá itó sa aklát ni monteclaro. Matagumpáy ang pagtatangól ni scott sa kaniyáng dissertation sa haráp ng isáng lupon ng mga batikáng filipinong mánanalaysáy na dati’y sumang-ayon sa mga dî totoóng bahagi ng kasaysayan ng filipinas.   ang lupong tagahatol ay binuô nina teodoro agoncilllo, horacio de la costa, marcelino forondo, mercedes grau santamaria, nicholas zafra at gregorio zaide. Inilathalŕ ang kinálabasán ng masusing pagsisiyasat ni scott sa kaniyáng prehispanic source materials for the study of philippine history noóng 1968 at magpahanggáng ngayón hindî itó pinabulaanan ng sinumáng mánanalaysáy. . Sa pagpasok ng dekadang 1960, pinag-álinlanganan na ng mga pangunahing dalubhasŕ ang maragtás kayâ hindî na nilá binanggít ang naturang aklát sa kaniláng mga akdâ. Pinatunayan ng sanaysáy ni scott na may katotohanan ang kaniláng mga hinalŕ. Subalit maraming taón pa ang lumipas bago nápansín ng mga mánunulát ng mga aklát pampáaralán ang mga ibinunyág ni scott. Karamihan sa kanilá ay ipinagpatuloy ang paglilimbág ng dati niláng mga aklát. May ibá namáng sumulat ng mga bagong aklát na tagláy pa rin ang mga kamálian. Náritó ang isáng halimbawŕ mulâ sa ang pagsulong ng payamanan (1981):. Bukód sa kamálian ng pahayag na itó, tila inakalŕ pa ng mga may-akdâ na ang maragtás ay isáng tao at hindî isáng aklát. Ginamit ni jose villa panganiban ang maragtas upang tuntunín ang pinagmulán ng wikang tagalog sa paunang salitâ ng napakapopulár na english-tagalog dictionary ni fr. Leo james english noóng 1965. . Magpahanggáng ngayón ay hindî pa itó iniwawastô sa kabilâ ng maraming panibagong limbág. May isáng kasapě sa lupong tagahatol sa dissertation ni scott na tila hindî nagmadalíng ituwíd ang mga kamáliang nasa talaan ng kasaysayan. Ginamit pa rin ni gregorio zaide ang mga dating kaalamán galing sa maragtás sa mga akdâ, tulad ng pageant of philippine history noóng 1979, history of the republic of the philippines sa taóng 1983 at philippine history sa 1984 na isinulat nilá ni sonia zaide, ang kaniyáng anák. . Nagsikap ang iláng mánanalaysáy upang iwastô ang mga kamalián ng nakaraán ngunit masasabing nagkámalî rin silá nang sabihin niláng ang maragtás ay isá sa mga panlilinláng sa kasaysayan ng filipinas at hindî isáng alamát lamang. Noóng ginawa ni sonia zaide ang panibagong labás ng history of the republic of the philippines sa taóng 1987, inilarawan niyáng malî ang maragtás dahil itó aniyá ay isáng huwád na kasulatan:. Bagama’t dati nang tinatanggap ng ilang mananalaysay, kabilang ang mga kasalukuyang awtor, naging maliwanag na ang maragtas ay likhang-isip lamang ni pedro a. Monteclaro, isang bisayang pinunong bayan at makata, sa iloilo noóng 1907. Ibinatay niya ito sa mga katutubong kaugalian at mga alamat, na isinalin sa mga sumusunod na salinlahi nang pasalita. . Hindî makatarungang hatulan si pedro monteclaro bilang isáng manlilinláng o na sabihing huwád ang kaniyáng aklát dahil malinaw ang kaniyáng pahayag na ang maragtás ay waláng ibá kundî isáng aklát ng mga alamát. Kung may panlilinláng kaugnay sa aklát na itó, itó ay ginawa ng ibáng mga manunulat na nagpahayag na itó ay isáng tunay na kasulatan mulâ sa unang panahón. . Looking back; important dates in philippines history. Education news. Vol. 7, no. 4. April 2001. Author not identified. . Antique provincial profile, league of provinces of the philippines. . Save madya-as, save panay. Author not identified. Ang pangunahing pinagkunan ng kaalamán sa lathalaíng itó, patí ng ilán sa mga sinipě mulâ sa ibá pang akdâ, ay prehispanic source materials for the study of philippine history (revised edition, 1984) ni w. H. Scott. Makikita ang pinagkunan ng bawat sipě kung iki-klik ang mga m# link. . Ang larawan sa itaás ng sanaysay na itó ay galing sa ang pagsulong ng pamayanan (unang labas, 1981, p. 174) nina f. T. Leogardo, r. R. De leon & p. Jacob. Hindî binanggít doón ang pangalan ng gumuhit ng larawan. . Alip, eufronio m. Political and cultural history of the philippines, revised edition, 1954. . English, leo james. English-tagalog dictionary, 1965. . Leogardo, felicitas t. , rosalina r. De leon & purification jacob. Ang pagsulong ng pamayanan, first edition, 1981. . Scott, william henry. Looking for the prehispanic filipino, 1992. . Zaide, gregorio f. The pageant of philippine history vol. 1, 1979. . Zaide, gregorio f. & sonia m. Zaide. Philippine history, corrected edition, 1987. . Zaide, gregorio f. & sonia m. Zaide. History of the republic of the philippines, revised edition, 1987. . Zaide, gregorio f. & sonia m. Zaide. Kasaysayan ng republika ng pilipinas, 1989. . . This document, however, was an ordinary book written in 1907 by pedro monteclaro in which he compiled the local legends of the visayas from mainly oral traditions and a few written documents that were fairly modern in their origins. Monteclaro never mentioned a chief by the name of kalantiaw in his maragtas. (see: the maragtas legend. ) some of the maragtas legends are a part of visayan folklore and they are a source of fierce pride for many visayans today. The stories of the ten datus or chiefs might have been told for generations and they are perfectly believable, as far as legends go, if we put aside the modern additions such as obviously phoney "original" manuscripts and the use of precise but utterly uncorroborated dates from the pre-colonial era. After all, it is not hard to believe that exiles could have sailed from borneo to settle in panay. Why not? Even though there are no ancient documents to show that chief sumakwel and his followers actually existed, there is much archaeological and foreign documentary evidence of regular trade and travel at that time between the philippines and its neighbours. But while monteclaro's misguided nationalism, combined with the blatant dishonesty of other writers who embellished his work, blurred the line between legends and hard historical facts, the story of kalantiaw is more alarming because he was never a part of the philippines' history or even its oral traditions. Kalantiaw was an utter hoax from the beginning. . Throughout the latter half of the 20th century filipino students were taught about the vicious and bizarre laws that were said to have been enacted by one datu kalantiaw in the year 1433 on the island of panay. Many of his commandments contradicted each other and his punishments were extremely brutal, usually having no relation to the severity of the crime committed. Offences to the law ranged from as light as singing at night to as grave as murder. Those convicted supposedly were made slaves, beaten, lashed, stoned, had fingers cut off, were exposed to ants, drowned, burned, boiled, chopped to pieces or fed to crocodiles. 1. The first reason is the lack of historical evidence. There are simply no written or pictorial documents from that time in philippine history. There are no documents from other countries that mention the great kalantiaw either. There is also no evidence that philippine culture ever spawned such a barbaric set of laws. The early spanish accounts tell us that filipino custom at that time allowed even the most serious lawbreakers to pay a fine or to be placed into servitude for a time in cases of debt. As the missionary francisco colín wrote in 1663:. In the punishment of crimes of violence the social rank of the slayer and slain made a great deal of difference. If the slain was a chief, all his kinsfolk took the warpath against the slayer and his kinfolk, and this state of war continued until arbiters were able to determine the amount of gold which had to be paid for the killing? The death penalty was not imposed by public authority save in cases where both the slayer and slain were commoners, and the slayer could not pay the blood price. K1. Arbitration is still the custom of those philippine cultures that were never conquered by the spaniards. 2. The second reason is the lack of evidence for kalantiaw even as a legend of oral history. Many ardent admirers of the datu, who disdain all historical evidence to the contrary, claim that he has long been a part of visayan culture and heritage. This is simply not true. In almost 400 years of documented philippine history – from magellan's arrival in 1521 until the second decade of the 20th century – no such legend was ever recorded. Kalantiaw even escaped the attention of pedro monteclaro when he published the. . Did the spaniards suppress the legend of kalantiaw? This accusation is usually the first thing that history buffs reach for when they need to explain a gap in philippine history. If the spaniards were aware of such a legend they had no reason to suppress it because those spaniards who were sympathetic to the filipinos could have presented the mere existence of the code as proof that their ancestors were civilized – just as many filipinos do today – while detractors could have pointed to the maniacal datu himself as proof of their savagery – even though his methods of torture were no more sadistic than those of the spanish inquisition. It is certain that there were no legends of kalantiaw before the 20th century. The aklanon historian digno alba was a young man at the start of that century. He looked for kalantiaw in local folklore in the 1950s but did not find him. On may 5, 1967 the historian william h. Scott wrote to alba and asked him:. 3. The third and most important reason to reject the kalantiaw myth is its source. If kalantiaw was not a historical figure or a legendary character, where did he come from? Many writers on this subject didn't bother to mention where they obtained their information. Some, like digno alba, simply created "facts" from thin air. Scott eventually traced the ultimate origin of kalantiaw back to a single person, josé e. Marco of pontevedra, negros occidental, who definitely did not live in the 1400s. In 1913, marco claimed to have discovered the pavón documents that were mentioned in scott's letter to digno alba. These documents, which contain the code of kalantiaw, were in fact marco's own creation. Kalantiaw eventually became the most successful of many hoaxes in marco's career of almost 50 years as a forger and fraud. (for more about the life of jose marco see. The article mentioned 16 laws enacted by king kalantiaw in 1433 and a fort that he built at gagalangin, negros, which was destroyed by an earthquake in the year a. D. 435 (not 1435). The article was written by manuel artigas who, only a year before, had provided the footnotes to a poorly written essay by josé marco, reseńa historica de la isla de negros. . . More details about kalantiaw emerged a year later, in 1914, when josé marco donated five manuscripts to the philippine library & museum. Among the documents was las antiguas leyendes de la isla de negros, a two volume leather bound work that was supposedly written by a friar josé maría pavón in 1838 and 1839. . The code of kalantiaw, in chapter 9 of part 1, was one of six translated documents that were dated before the arrival of the spaniards in the philippines. The original code was purportedly discovered in the possession of a panay datu in 1614. At the time of pavón's writing in 1839 it was supposedly owned by a don marcelio orfila of zaragoza. In 1966 the philippine government asked the government of spain for the return of the original code of kalantiaw by the descendants of marcelio orfila but the police commissioner there could not find any record of that family in the city of zaragoza. For several decades josé marco didn't explain, at least in writing, where he got friar pavón's manuscripts but it seems that he had a ready explanation to tell privately. The anthropologist and historian henry otley beyer related this story to his colleague, mauro garcia, in the early 1950s. As the story goes, pavón was the priest in the town of himamaylan, negros in the 1840s. When that town was looted during the revolution in 1899, marco's father was among some looters who had stolen what they thought was a chest of coins or jewelry but when it was accidentally dropped in the river it became so heavy that they realized that it was full of papers, which were apparently the pavón manuscripts. However if this story was true, josé marco would have had to explain why he didn't use this wealth of information or even mention these documents when he wrote his reseńa historica in 1912. Perhaps marco saw the flaw in his story so, when he explained the origin of the manuscripts to the philippine studies program at the university of chicago in 1954, he said that he had got them from an old cook who once worked at the convent in himamaylan where pavón had lived. It was this old cook, he said, who had stolen the manuscripts during the looting and then, evidently, sold them to marco in 1913. . Aside from the doubtful origin of the code of kalantiaw and pavón's leyendes, which contains it, these documents themselves are both highly suspicious. The title of the code is the 17 theses, or laws of the regulos [datus] in use in 150 since 1433 (sic) but there are actually 18 laws listed, which cover approximately forty different offences, and not 16 laws as reported by artigas in 1913. And of course, the dates in the title make no sense. In the 1800s it was still common to abbreviate dates by omitting the first one or two digits of a year but never the final digits. Therefore the number 150 was not a contraction of the year 1500. It could only mean 1150, which is just as nonsensical as 150. The second chapter in part two of leyendes tells about the building of kalantiaw's fortress in 433. Although this number is a correct abbreviation of 1433, the same year in which kalantiaw allegedly wrote his laws, the document that shows that date was supposedly written in the year 1137! And in spite of the fact that ancient filipinos had no clocks or a measure of time equal to one hour, kalantiaw's third law condemns a man to swim for three hours if he cannot afford to care for his wives, while his fifth law metes out the punishment of a one hour lashing. . Improbable dates are typical of all the documents that josé marco claimed to have discovered. The presumed author of leyendes, josé maría pavón, translated the code of kalantiaw and five other pre-hispanic documents, but he did not explain how he had calculated their dates. He himself even wrote that the ancient visayans did not keep track of the years for any extended length of time, yet his "exact" translation of a document that was supposedly written in 1489, decades before western culture made contact with the philippines, mentioned the "first friday of the year" and years with "three numbers alike, as for instance 1777". It also mentioned coins of king charles v of spain who was not even born until the year 1500. And the anachronisms are not limited to the pre-hispanic documents. Pavón was just as confused about his own era. Upon completing his masterwork, pavón dedicated leyendes to the king of spain on august 1, 1839. Spain had no king at that time; the 8 year old child queen isabella ii had held the throne since 1833 under the regency of her mother, maria christina. There was no king again until 1874. When pavón described an ancient visayan calendar in 1838-39 he happened to write that november was called "a bad month, for it brought air laden with putrefied microbes of evil fevers". The word microbe was not invented until 1878 and louis pasteur only developed his theory that infectious germs could be transmitted through the air in the 1850s. Pavón included the pre-hispanic visayan alphabet that fr. Francisco deza had supposedly recorded in 1543 but he was not born until in 1620. Another document was signed by deza on march 23, 14, which was either six years before his birth or 94 years after, depending on which century was intended for the year?? 14. That same document was stamped, "parish of ilog of occidental negros" with a note, "r. S. In the province and town above named on the twenty first of the month of july in the year 17? " there was no province of negros occidental in those centuries or in pavón's time. The island of negros was not divided until 1890. The examples of ancient visayan writing in leyendes looked very similar to others that were allegedly discovered by josé marco and they contained the same mistakes. Even though the ancient filipino letters were used in these documents, the words were not written in the syllabic method of the philippines but were spelled phonetically in the spanish style. That is to say, it seemed that each spanish letter was merely substituted by an ancient filipino letter. This is wrong because in all other forms of ancient filipino and malaysian writing, each letter represented a complete syllable whereas spanish letters (our modern letters) represent only basic sounds. Also, there were no marks above or below the letters to indicate vowels other than "a" and there was no character for the "nga" syllable. It was substituted by a combination of the letters "n" and "g" with a large spanish tilde (~) placed above! In short, pre-colonial filipino authors supposedly wrote in ancient filipino letters but applied to them spanish spelling conventions in an era before any spaniard had set foot in the philippines. Pavón's own writing was also curious. The title pages of leyendes were obviously hand drawn but made to look as though they were printed text. Various type styles were mixed and the uppercase "i"s were even dotted. . The spelling throughout the two volumes of leyendes was also erratic. The spelling in volume 1, which was written in 1838, was similar to spelling of the 1500s. For the second volume in 1839, pavón wrote that he had adopted the "many changes in spelling" contained in the latest dictionary of the spanish royal academy and indeed the style of volume 2 was proper for that time, though not consistent with that dictionary. However pavón did not explain how he was able to employ these new spellings in a document he wrote back in 1837 when he did not yet know about them in 1838. That document was brujerías y los cuentos de fantasmas and it was also "discovered" by josé marco. . Friar josé maría pavón y araguro acknowledged many sources of information for his books: untraceable informants, unknown documents and authors who were were already deceased or not even born yet or who, due to other circumstances, could not have written the documents that were ascribed to them. Thus, it is no small coincidence that pavón's own life story, as described in his manuscripts, was equally dubious. Pavón claimed that he arrived in the philippines in 1810 but there are no records to support this. He also wrote that he had lived in the convent of his parish of himamaylan since at least july 17, 1830 but according to the libro de cosas notables of himamaylan, he actually took charge of that parish 12 years later on september 7, 1842. He wrote that he completed las antiguas leyendes in himamaylan in 1839, which was the same year the guía de forasteros listed him as a professor of syntax and rhetoric at the seminary in cebu. This is the earliest known record of the real josé maría pavón. The guía de forasteros or "foreigner's guide" contained a directory of various government officials and it was released annually during the spanish era. It always listed pavón with a "d. " (for "don") before his name, which meant that he was a secular priest. But pavón, the author, often signed his name as "fray josé maría pavón", which implied that he was a friar in a religious order. He even mentioned taking a trip to borneo with some "companions of the habit". Pavón claimed that he was a schoolboy in 1788 in seville, spain. One of his supposed classmates at that time was fray jorge g. De setién who was also mentioned in josé marco's reseńa histórica as the author of a travel book about the philippines in 1779. If we suppose that setién was a very precocious infant in 1779, he and pavón were no younger that 9 years of age in 1788. This would have made pavón at least 87 years old in 1866 when he was known to be the parish priest of cebu. It is obvious that the real josé maría pavón did not write the pavón manuscripts. It is more likely that his name was simply plucked from the records of history to be used in a very ambitious but clumsy hoax. . The kalantiaw hoax was created by josé marco but it soon took on a life of its own. Frauds and scholars alike began to build a history on the foundation of his artificial legend. Marco and kalantiaw instantly attained a veneer of legitimacy when dr. James a. Robertson acquired the new "discoveries" for the philippine library and museum in 1914. On july 20, 1915, robertson submitted a paper about the kalantiaw code to the panama-pacific historical congress in california and then published an english translation of the code in 1917.   in that same year a spanish version of the code was published and discussed by josué soncuya in six chapters of his historia prehispana. . Soncuya, a native of banga, aklan, bestowed upon the great lawmaker the title "rajah kalantiaw" and he concluded that the code was written for aklan, panay and not negros because he had spotted two aklanon words in the text. He overlooked the fact that the title of the book that told the tales of kalantiaw was the ancient legends of the island of negros and that it was supposedly written on that island by josé pavón whose manuscripts were allegedly discovered there by josé marco, a native of negros, and according to those manuscripts, kalantiaw built his fortress on the island of negros. Nevertheless, the kalantiaw legend was successfully transplanted into the soil of panay. Perhaps his devotees thought that the better fertilized land of the maragtas legends would provide him a little more credibility. In 1949 gregorio zaide included the kalantiaw code in his philippine political and cultural history with the words "aklan, panay" attached to the title. And even though digno alba could find no evidence for kalantiaw as a legend, he declared in his book paging datu kalantiaw (1956) that the datu had set up his government in batan and made it the capital of the sakup of aklan. . On december 8, 1956 a historical marker with a brass plaque was erected in batan in honour of kalantiaw. In the following year, 1957, a former school building in the town was converted into the kalantiaw shrine by the philippine historical and cultural society. The museum even boasts an "original manuscript" of the code. . The kalantiaw shrine and museum in batan, aklan. From a postcard printed by the national histotrical institute in 1976. In 1966 sol h. Gwekoh released new details in the sunday times about the life of datu bendahara kalantiaw, son of rajah behendra gulah. He was born in 1410 and became the third muslim ruler in panay at the age of 16. Kalantiaw is thought by many to belong to a long genealogy of muslim rulers but it is clearly evident in his own code that he was not even a muslim. He was an animist. His code punished offences against anitos, diwatas, venerated trees and animals, and clay idols. Aside from this, it is slightly ironic that gwekoh gave the exalted datu the name "bendahara" because it is actually an old visayan word, which means "prime minister" or second in power to the top datu. It has a similar meaning in modern malay. Other unidentified writers are often quoted throughout the internet for many contradicting stories about kalantiaw. . Some maintain that he was not only the third ruler of panay, but that he was also the third in a dynasty of rulers named kalantiaw. His father was not rajah gulah but king kalantiaw i who captured the town of batan in 1399 with chinese adventurers. Incredible though it may seem, the elder kalantiaw i gave his name to both his sons, kalantiaw ii and kalantiaw iii. Kalantiaw ii was not the father of the more famous kalantiaw iii but his brother! Even harder to believe is that there is an exact date for when kalantiaw iii supposedly issued his famous commandments - december 8, 1433. Many more stories abound about the life, the loves, the battles, the duels and the death of kalantiaw. The title of his code simply called him kalantiaw, the 3rd "regulo" or "petty king". Kalantiaw was honoured by the philippine navy in december 1967 when it acquired the world war ii destroyer escort uss booth from the united states and recommissioned it the rps datu kalantiaw. It was lost during typhoon clara on september 20, 1981. . In 1970 the popular historian gregorio zaide speculated in great filipinos in history that kalantiaw's real name was lakan tiaw or "chief of brief speech". Lakan is a common prefix to tagalog names that once meant "paramount ruler". Incredibly zaide even reproduced a direct quote from the noble king, "the law is above all men. " however the most shocking aspect of zaide's claims was that he wrote them while knowing full well that the kalantiaw legend was proved decisively to be a hoax two years earlier. . José marco continued to produce forgeries almost until his death in 1963 but with ever diminishing success. By the 1950s genuine scholars could no longer take him seriously and despite kalantiaw's growing renown, a new generation of academics began to question the dogma of a half century of philippine historiography. In 1965 william henry scott was a doctoral candidate at the university of santo tomas when the bibliographer mauro garcia suggested that for his thesis he examine the history of the philippines before the arrival of the spaniards. Garcia had received several fake documents from josé marco in the past, which made him suspicious of marco's first discoveries upon which so much early history was based. He only showed a few of these forgeries to scott so as not to prejudice his research, saving the most blatant fakes until after scott had formed his own conclusions about marco's work. Scott focused his investigation by tracing the original source of every single reference to the pre-hispanic history of the philippines in the four standard college text books in use at that time. . He examined the original documents and searched archives and museums the world over for supporting documents and artifacts. He questioned the top historians of the day about their sources of information. He interviewed the friends and colleagues of jose e. Marco and he examined their correspondence with him. In the matter of kalantiaw, all the information was traced back to a single source; josé e. Marco. Scott summarized the results of his painstaking investigation in just two sentences:. Scott successfully defended his thesis before a panel of eminent filipino historians, some of whom had formerly endorsed many of the facts of philippine history that he had proved false. The panel included teodoro agoncillo, horacio de la costa, marcelino forondo, mercedes grau santamaria, nicholas zafra and gregorio zaide. Scott's meticulous research was published in 1968 in his book prehispanic source materials for the study of philippine history and since then no historian has contested his conclusions. . William h. Scott's exposé did not have an immediate effect on filipino society. On march 1, 1971, president ferdinand marcos instituted the "order of kalantiaw", an award "for services to the country in the areas of law and justice" (executive order no. 294). That same year a beauty pageant winner was crowned "lakambini ni kalantiaw" on the supposed anniversary of the code (december 8), and the artist carlos valino jr. Depicted kalantiaw issuing his commandments (. ). On january 24, 1973, marcos also issued presidential decree no. 105, which declared that the kalantiaw shrine, and all national shrines, were sacred. The decree prohibited all forms of desecration including "unnecessary noise and committing unbecoming acts. " like kalantiaw's code, the penalty was hefty; "imprisonment for not less than ten (10) years or a fine not less than ten thousand pesos (p10,000) or both. " in 1976, the national historical institute (nhi) published the pamphlet,. Containing a short biography of the chief, which included several specific pre-colonial dates and the obligatory comparison to solomon, complete with an anecdote of one of his judicial cases as an example of his wisdom. The pamphlet also contained the code itself, quoted from the 1970 edition of. By teodoro agoncillo and milagros guerrero. Some historians, like agoncillo, did not give up on kalantiaw immediately, although others had already dismissed the legend even before scott's thesis was published. Once his irrefutable proofs were made public, even the foremost historians were persuaded to remove the myth from their books. However, one astonishing exception was gregorio f. Zaide, the author of countless school textbooks and a member of the very dissertation panel that examined scott's thesis in 1968. According to scott,. During the revalida [oral examination], not a single question was raised about the chapter, which i called "the contributions of jose e. Marco to philippine historiography". K10. Despite this opportunity to challenge scott's thesis directly on the matter of kalantiaw, zaide apparently remained silent but he continued to endorse the myth and even add his own details to it in books such as heroes of philippine history (1970), pageant of philippine history (1979), history of the republic of the philippines (1983), philippine history (1984), and in reissues of his older works. Soon after dr. Zaide's death in 1986 his daughter, sonia m. Zaide, revised the books that she had co-authored with her father and removed most, but not all, of the material based on the marco hoaxes. Nevertheless, the ghost of kalantiaw continues to haunt filipinos some 40 years after the hoaxes were exposed. He is still portrayed on the ceiling of the old senate hall in manila and the philippine government still awards the "order of kalantiaw" to retiring justices. The central philippine university in iloilo has its own "order of kalantiao", a fraternity that was at the centre of a serious hazing incident in september of 2001. Even the nhi continued to honour kalantiaw in 1989 by including him in volume 4 of their five volumes of filipinos in history. The gintong pamana (golden heritage) awards foundation, a project of philippine time usa magazine, rewards community leadership among filipino-americans with the "kalantiaw award". Buildings, streets and banquet halls throughout the philippines still bear the name of the imaginary ruler of panay and tourists can still visit the kalantiaw shrine in batan, aklan or even pass by a local high school, kalantiaw institute. Old school textbooks are revised to include relativley recent events such as the people power revolution of 1986 but the fictitious codes of kalantiaw and maragtas remain untouched, as in a history of the philippines by leogardo et al. (1986). In newer textbooks, authors of the old school still retell the obsolete theories and fallacies of philippine history although some now make cynical attempts to present a fair and enlightened view by merely inserting brief, and often dismissive, notes about rival? Opinions. ? Take for example these lines from edgardo e. Dagdag? S 1997 high school textbook, kasaysayan at pamahalaan ng pilipinas (history & government of the philippines):. It is good to examine the contents of the kalantiaw code, even though it is not believed to be an authentic written law by some historians such as professor w. Henry scott, because it can be seen here what kind of society the ancient filipinos wanted to create. ? Filipinos wanted to have a society that was religious and god-fearing; with respect for authority, the elderly, women and the environment; and which valued life and a person? S word. K12. One wonders just how closely the author examined the content of the kalantiaw code when he wrote this charitable description of such a saintly community. Would a society that "valued life" have wanted such an irrational legal code wherein 14 of its 18 laws inflicted the most gruesome deaths, mutilations and tortures? The bibliography in the book does not list any works by w. Henry scott so it can be assumed that the author was not familiar with scott? S absolutely incontrovertible proofs that debunked the kalantiaw myth so thoroughly. Otherwise, he would have known that the code and all the legends surrounding it were in fact 20. Century fabrications and thus could not possibly show "what kind of society the ancient filipinos wanted to create. " inferior textbooks are not likely to vanish soon if the textbook/bribery scandal at the department of budget and management in 1999 was any indicator of the state of the educational system in the philippines. However, the situation is not completely hopeless. For although the philippine public may be slow to shrug off the kalantiaw myth, recent generations of students have come to know it as a fraud rather than a fact. The gradual effect of this teaching is starting to show. In 1994 the playwright rene o. Villanueva dramatized the life of jose e. Marco and the creation of the kalantiaw hoax in the play kalantiaw, kagila-gilalas na kasinungalingan (the amazing lie). Villanueva's intriguing story proposed that marco's motivation for creating his frauds was his intense admiration for his personal hero, jose rizal. Marco's ambition was to better the accomplishments of rizal by inventing a glorious past to fill the gaps in filipino history. It is only now, since most of the old guard has passed on, that the new generation of historians have been able to set the records straight. The nhi finally admitted that kalantiaw was a hoax in 1998 when chief justice andres narvasa, who was about to receive the kalantiaw award, asked malacañang to look into the matter. President joseph estrada gave him the award anyway. In 2005, the nhi, under the leadership of ambeth ocampo, made their opinion official when they submitted a resolution to president arroyo to revoke the national shrine status of the kalantiaw shrine in aklan, which, of course, enraged some aklanons. Today some people still cite the courage and wisdom of kalantiaw as they continue to heap accolades upon him and the oblivious recipients of those kalantiaw awards. However, a sober look at kalantiaw's code reveals that his magnificent courage was merely brutality and his exalted wisdom was in fact incredible insanity. Kalantiaw's defenders insist that his legend must be true simply because he has always inspired them as a part of their heritage. But while they portray such a maniac as a filipino hero, they disregard what gross slander they lay on the character of all filipinos. Fortunately, the people of the philippines need never bear this shame because kalantiaw never really existed. . Page. "as provided by the office of the governor, kalibo, aklan". History & culture, official website of iloilo city. Author not identified. . The main source of information for this article, including some of the quotations from earlier works, is w. H. Scott's prehispanic source materials for the study of philippine history, revised edition, 1984. Specific citations may be accessed by clicking on the k# links. . Abeto, isidro escare. . Alip, eufronio m. Political & cultural history of the philippines vol: 1. Revised edition, 1954. . Arellano law foundation - the lawphil project, presidential decrees no. 105 january 24, 1973. De la costa, horacio. Readings in philippine history. 1965. . Del ayre, art. Abda's philippine philatelic website. Geocities. Com/abda/index. Html. Dagdag, edgardo e. Kasaysayan at pamahalaan ng pilipinas, 1997. Leogardo, felicitas t. , vicente r. Leogardo, m. R. Jacobo, a history of the philippines, new edition, 1986. . Robertson, megan c. Medals of the world, www. Medals. Org. Uk 2001. . Scott, william henry. Prehispanic source material for the study of philippine history. 1968. . Scott, william henry. Looking for the prehispanic filipino. 1992. . Scott, william henry. Barangay, sixteenth-century philippine culture and society. 1994. . Villanueva, rene o. Apat na dula. 1998. . Yarnall, paul r. De-170 uss booth. Www. Navsource. Org. 2001. . Zaide, gregorio f. & sonia m. Zaide. History of the republic of the philippines. Revised edition, 1987. . Zaide, gregorio f. & sonia m. Zaide. Philippine history. Corrected edition, 1987. . This is a tracing of the povedano map as it appeared in the november 21, 1913 edition of renacimiento filipino (filipino renaissance). The original parchment was supposedly discovered by jose e. Marco who donated it to the philippine library and museum in 1914. It was destroyed in the second world war but a photographic copy survives in the robertson collection in the manuscript department of the william r. Perkins library at duke university, durham, n. C. , u. S. A. . The map was said to have been discovered when the walls of the prison in himamaylan, negros were torn down in 1833. The map was rolled up inside a metal tube contained in a lead box hidden in one of the walls. An inventory of the contents of that box was written on the back of the map and dated march 23, 1833 but the robertson photographs don't show it and it was note mentioned in robertson's initial description. The inventory stated that,? All items were left with don m. V. Morquecho" and it was indeed signed by manuel valdivieso y morquecho and two witnesses. However, according to the archives in madrid and seville, don m. V. Morquecho was still in cadiz, spain as late as 1847 petitioning queen isabella ii. He was asking her not to send him to the philippines at all. He did become governor of negros but not until 1849. Through a series of thefts the map ended up in 1898 in the hands of a former servant of governor valdivieso who supposedly sold it to josé e. Marco sometime after november 18, 1913 ­ only three days before this tracing was published in renacimiento filipino. . The most glaring anomaly of the map is its scale labelled with the unknown measurement leuea linea.   according to this scale the island of negros is about 243 leueas from north to south. If the term leuea is simply a misspelling of the spanish word legua or league, this measurement is far from the contemporary figures which estimated the length of negros to be only 45 leagues. (a spanish league in the 16th century was approximately 4. 18 kilometres. ) the figure of 243 leueas is suspiciously close to the actual modern length of 222 kilometres. Suspicious because there was no such measure as a kilometre in 1572. The kilometre was invented by the government of france in 1799.  the illustration below shows a comparison of povedano's scale to the modern kilometre and the spanish league of the 16th century. This mistaken use of the league measure is common to many of the josé marco hoaxes. The manuscripts attributed to josé maría pavón mentioned that there was ancient fortress at marayo (now pontevedra) which was about twenty leagues to the north of himamaylan. Those towns just happen to be 20 kilometres apart. And in a 1970 article in philippine studies 18 entitled the authenticity of the writings attributed to father jose burgos, fr. John schumacher investigated other marco frauds which also mentioned leagues that equalled kilometres. . The map shows three crosses at the approximate locations of the towns of himamaylan, pontevedra and bacolod. Presumably these crosses represent churches but as of 1572 the were no churches on the island of negros. In fact there were only ten priests in the entire philippines at that time and none of them were on the island of negros. . Kalantiaw was said to have built a fort at gagalangin, negros according to the article civilización prehispana by manuel artigas, an associate of josé e. Marco, in the july 1913 issue of renacimiento filipino. The povedano map was published later that year in the november issue of that same journal. Three forts are displayed on the map but gagalangin is not shown. Thus when the pavón manuscripts were donated to the philippine library in the following year, the location of kalantiaw's fortress was changed to calingling in order to match the map. . Juan camunhing rigay is the name written at the bottom left of the 1572 map. It is similar to two informants that were mentioned by josé pavón in 1838, domingo rigay and canunhing. Both the map and the pavón manuscripts were supposedly discovered by josé marco. . The original map was drawn on leather parchment unlike all other documents of the spanish period, which were written on paper. Also, it is unlikely that an image could survive on a parchment document that had been folded, rolled inside a tube, left in a limestone wall of a building in the tropics for possibly more than 250 years, kept in unknown conditions between 1833 and 1914 and then finally be successfully unrolled and traced. Kalantiaw english    home    kalantiaw filipino. Main information source: prehispanic source materials for the study of philippine history, revised edition, 1984 by william henry scott  also: weights and measurements in california's mission period: linear measurements, part 1 by kenneth pauley, updated march 10, 2001. Ca-missions. Org/pauley. Html. This is the fraudulent code of kalantiaw which first appeared in ancient legends of the island of negros (volume 1, chapter 9), a book ascribed to a ficticious friar named josé maría pavon but was actually a forgery by josé e. Marco (1877? -1963) who claimed to have discovered it in 1913. Almost nobody questioned the authenticity of the code for over 50 years until historian william henry scott exposed it and many other historical frauds in 1968. Unfortunately, it is still thought to be true in many circles today. . Later writers added the words "aklan, panay" to the title but it was supposedly written for the island of negros. . Ye shall not kill, neither shall ye steal nor shall ye hurt the aged, lest ye incur the danger of death. All those who this order shall infringe shall be tied to a stone and drowned in a river or in boiling water. . Actually 3 laws - for killing, stealing & elder abuse. Beware. If you break this law you may "incur the danger of death" before you are actually killed. . Ye shall punctually meet your debt with your headman. He who fulfils not, for the first time shall be lashed a hundred fold, and if the obligation is great, his hand shall be dipped threefold in boiling water. On conviction, he shall be flogged to death. . If you're not convicted of defaulting on a debt you get a lashing or a scalding. "on conviction" you die. - neither a borrower nor a lender be, i guess. . Obey ye: no one shall have wives that are too young, nor shall they be more than what he can take care of, nor spend much luxury. He who fulfils not, obeys not, shall be condemned to swim three hours, and, for the second time, he shall be scourged with spines to death. . Actually 3 laws - for statutory rape, extreme polygamy & extravagance (or possibly lust, depending on the translation). "swim for 3 hours". Ancient filipinos did not divide the day into 24 "hours" and they had no clocks. . Actually 2 laws - for disturbing graves & disrespecting graves. "observe and obey" - what's the difference? Also, if you break this law you die but if you break similar laws, #6 & #9, you pay a fine or become a slave. . Obey ye: exchange in food must be carried out faithfully. He who complies not shall be lashed for an hour. He who repeats the act shall, for a day be exposed to the ants. . The western measurement of time, the hour, is mentioned again here. Also, "obey ye" (but don't "observe ye"? ). Why the faux mediaeval english? It's silly. Did the author of this "translation" think it made the work more believable?. Ye shall revere respectable places, trees of known value, and other sites. He shall pay a month's work, in gold or money, whoever fails to do this; and if twice committed, he shall be declared a slave. . Many people say that kalantiaw was a muslim but here he demands that his subjects must "revere" trees and other sites like animists do. Also, don't confuse this with law #4. You might get the surprise of your life - your death!  . Actually 4 laws - for tree killing, assault with a deadly weapon, trespassing & poaching. More animisim from the supposedly muslim datu. Is it permissible to shoot the elderly during the day or to shoot them with something other than arrows at night? The penalty for trespassing here is death. But don't worry, take a look at law #8. . Actually 3 laws - for adultery, assault with a vicious animal & vandalism. The penalty for trespassing on a headman's property is death (see: law #7) however you may fool around with his wives and sic fido on him and still just get away with a stint of slavery. . Actually 5 laws - for night singing, bird killing, document tearing, being a politician and necrophilia. Did the ancient filipinos have paper documents? Isn't this what tearing implies? If you kill a manaul bird you risk slavery but if it's a young bird you will be scourged. See: law #15. More "muslim" animism? And if you enjoy necrophilia you are only risking temporary servitude but if you disturb the peace of a grave while doing so you will be killed. See: law #4. It shall be the obligation of every mother to show her daughter secretly the things that are lascivious, and prepare them for womanhood; men shall not be cruel to their wives, nor should they punish them when they catch them in the act of adultery. He who disobeys this shall be torn to pieces and thrown to the caymans. . Actually 2˝ laws - for sexual ignorance, spousal abuse & spousal abuse with jealousy. "torn to pieces and thrown to the caymans" - wow! There's an incentive for sex ed. Dad should be understanding if there's another man in the house; he's probably just helping mum with an educational demonstration. . Actually 3 laws - for thumbing your nose at the law, double child homicide & adultery. I guess killing young girls or a single boy was o. K. In kalantiaw's kingdom. Here's a tip: don't try to steal the old men's women; just do it! Or just go for the headmen's women instead and you won't get burned. See: law #8. . Actually 3 laws - for assault, taking a superior for granted  & vandalism. The penalty for breaking this law is death by drowning. If you want to fight authority just get your dog to attack a headman. The penalty is less severe. See: law #8 again. Anitos? Kalantiaw is supposed to be a muslim, not an animist. . They shall be killed, who profane places where sacred objects of their diwatas or headmen are buried. He who gives way to the, call of nature at such places shall he burned. . Source of this version of the code of kalantiaw: political and cultural history of the philippines, volume 1 published as fact by eufronio m. Alip, 1954  . Sarisari etc. - filipino history, language, pop culture. . The story of the laguna copperplate inscription, the earliest known and authenticated filipino document. Includes an actual photograph of the copper inscription, a transliteration into the modern alphabet and modern filipino and english translations of the document. . Celebrities, fonts, genealogy, history, language, movies, news, shakespeare, the simpsons. . .
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Counter Top Doulton Ceramic Filter99.4768
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viscount gort hotel4.92%
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viscount gort winnipeg3.15%
royal doulton2.89%
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mmsweb.mts.net1.66%

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mmsweb.mts.net 0.85%
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viscount gort hotel winnipeg 1.52%
doulton water filter 1.49%
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